1924 born in Leningrad; raised in Riga
He and his father survived the concentration camps in Stutthof and Buchenwald.
His mother, grandmother, younger sister, and early love were executed in 1941 in a mass shooting.
1946 emigrated to New York
1959 co-founder of the NO!art movement, which opposed Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, and, above all, the commodification of art, while devoting itself to political themes, such as racism, sexism, and consumer culture.
2008 died in New York